No Ke Koʻikoʻi o nā Inoa ʻĀina

FLUX Memory No Ke Koʻikoʻi o nā Inoa ʻĀina
Paʻi Kiʻi ʻia e Vincent Bercasio

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He mea pohihihi paha ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ka ʻōlelo he “Hawaiian sense of place”, he hopunaʻōlelo e lohe hele ʻia ana mai ka ʻoihana hoʻokipa malihini a ka ʻoihana hakulau. I ka hapa nui naʻe o ka manawa, he hoʻohāmau ʻia ke ō ʻana mai o nā inoa ʻāina kuʻuna. Ua hiki anei ke hoʻohanohano maoli i ka ʻāina me ka ʻike ʻole ʻana i nā inoa ʻāina?

“Alahula Pu‘uloa, he alahele na Ka‘ahupāhau.”

I waena konu o ke kenekulia iwakālua, ua kākau ʻo Mary Kawena Pukui, “Hawaiian place names are on everyone’s tongue.” I loko o nā ʻano puana like ʻole, me ka pohihihi o nā manaʻo a moʻolelo paha, he oia mau nō kēia mau inoa ʻāina i ka hoʻopuka waha ʻia, ka waiho ma ka palapala ʻāina, hōʻailona alanui, a ma loko hoʻi o ka ʻike hoʻomaopopo o kānaka. Ma ia ʻano, he wahi kākaʻikahi ʻo Hawaiʻi no ka nui o ka lilo ʻana o nā inoa ʻāina ma nā wahi ʻē i uhi ʻia ma lalo o ka ʻale kolonaio e haʻanopu aʻe ana me ke kapa mai nō i ia mau wahi ma nā inoa malihini hoʻi ma ko lākou hakahaka. I ka nānā ʻana naʻe, ma kekahi ʻano, ke koe maila nō nā inoa ʻāina o Hawaiʻi nei, akā, ʻaʻole loa naʻe ia he mea a kākou e kaukaʻi wale aku ai e mau loa ana ia.

ʻO ka ʻōlelo noʻeau o luna, he kamaʻāina paha i ka lohe ʻia ma loko o ka ʻōlelo, ka moʻolelo, a me ka mele Hawaiʻi paha. He aʻo haʻawina mai nō ia iā kākou e pili ana no ka poʻe akua, wahi pana, a kaʻao hoʻi o Hawaiʻi a me kona ʻano i waiho ai mai ka wā iō kikilo mai. No ke alahula nō hoʻi kēia ʻōlelo, ma Puʻuloa, e hōʻike mai ana hoʻi i ke ʻano i maʻa a kamaʻāina loa ai hoʻi ʻo Kaʻahupāhau i kona wahi noho, a lilo maila ia he alahula nona.

Flux Memory The Gravity of Inoa ʻĀina
Ke ʻike nei kākou i ke kākau maoli hou ʻia o kēia ʻāina ʻo Hawaiʻi ma lalo o nā inoa hou a malihini, no lākou nō ka nui o ka makemake.

ʻO ka kapa hou ʻana i ka inoa ʻo Puʻuloa ma ka inoa hou ʻo Pearl Harbor, he mea ia e pilikahi ana me ke Kuʻikahi Pānaʻi Like o ka makahiki 1875 i hoʻouku ʻole ʻia ai ko ʻAmelika Huipūʻia i ka ʻauhau i ka wā o ke kūʻai aku kūʻai mai i ke kō a me nā mea kūʻai ʻē aʻe i hoʻoulu ʻia ma Hawaiʻi. I hua paha no kēia hana, ua loaʻa mai ia kai kohola ma kai o Puʻuloa a me nā ʻaekai e pili aku ana iā ʻAmelika Huipūʻia, me ka hoʻolilo ʻana i ia wahi i kahua no ka ʻoihana moku o ʻAmelika.

ʻO kekahi hapa nui o nā Hawaiʻi ponoʻī i ia wā, ua kūʻē nui lākou i ke kuʻikahi, me ka hoʻohuoi nō hoʻi i ka hoʻokuleana ʻana mai o ʻAmelika iā ia iho ma ke kulāiwi nei a me ka ʻimi ʻana i mana loa nona, ʻoiai e nui mālie aʻe ana nō ia mana ma Hawaiʻi. Ua hōʻike mai ʻo Joseph Nāwahī, he kāʻeʻaʻeʻa ma ke kālaiʻāina, he loio, a he aloha ʻāina ʻoiaʻiʻo no Hawaiʻi aupuni, i kona manaʻo wānana, “he kuʻikahi kā’ili aupuni” nō hoʻi ia i kona wā e pale ana i ka lilo ʻana i ka haole o kauwahi ʻāina ke i ke ea. Ma ka hopena naʻe o ka makahiki 1884, ma ka hoʻololi ʻana i ke kuʻikahi, ua hoʻokapu ʻia akula ia wahi iā ʻAmelika wale nō.

ʻO ia wānana kilo ʻana a ka lāhui Hawaiʻi, ua kūpono maoli i ka ʻike ʻana i nā mea i hana poholalo ʻia mai, a i kāʻili hoʻi i ka ʻāina mai loko aʻe o ka lima o ka Hawaiʻi no ka pūʻali koa ʻāina ʻē, i hoʻolawa loa nō iā ʻAmelika ma ka ʻaoʻao hoʻomakauliʻi, a i hoʻoulu mai hoʻi i ka hoʻokāhuli aupuni me ka hoʻohui ʻāina kūʻai hewa. Ma kona hoʻohana ʻia no ka pūʻali koa a me kona noho hewa mau ʻia hoʻi, ua hoʻololi ʻia ʻo Hawaiʻi ʻo ka maka ihe laumeki o ʻAmelika, ʻoiai he kūpaʻa ʻo ʻAmelika Huipūʻia ma hope o kona mau kūlia hoʻomakauliʻi me kona mana ma ka paeʻāina nei. Inā e nānā aku i ka hoʻololi ʻia o nā inoa ʻāina me ke kāʻili a hoʻoili aku i ka mana ma nā makahiki lōʻihi i hala o ka nohona kanaka o Hawaiʻi, e ʻike ʻia auaneʻi he pilina e kāhāhā ʻole ai kākou: Ua loli ka inoa i ka wā nō e komo mai ana kekahi ʻano nohona hou, me kekahi ʻōlelo hou, ma kahi hoʻi ʻakahi nō a kūkulu ʻia mai, i kapa ʻia hoʻi ma ka inoa hou.

Flux Memory The Gravity of Inoa ʻĀina
Pōhaku ma Maunalua, 2020.

He mea hoʻohoka maoli nō hoʻi ka mau ʻana mai o ka ʻōlelo noʻeau no Kaʻahupāhau, ʻoiai ua hoʻololi a hoʻokahuli nui ʻia kona wahi noho i kēia wā iho nei. He wahi pana nō ʻo Puʻuloa, e kapa nui ʻia nei ʻo Pearl Harbor, e oi mau ana nō ma lalo wale nō o nā makahiki he nui o ke kīpapa ʻana no ke kūkulu kauhale, no ka hoʻopūʻalikoa, no ka hoʻohana kāpili nō hoʻi kekahi. I ka nānā ʻana i ka nui o ia mau loli, aia mau nō anei ia alahula? Aia mau nō anei ia iā Kaʻahupāhau? Inā pēlā, aia ma hea nō lā hoʻi ia?

ʻO ka pōmaikaʻi, aia ka haʻina, ma kekahi ʻano hoʻi, ma loko o ka inoa ʻāina. ʻO ka manaʻo o Puʻuloa, he puʻu a he loa nō ia, a he kuhi aku ia i ka hōʻike honua a me ka waiho kāhela o ko Kaʻahupāhau wahi noho. E like me ka hapa nui o nā unoa ʻāina ma Hawaiʻinuiākea, he inoa kuhi honua ʻo Puʻuloa no kona hiʻohiʻona ke ʻike aku ma ka ʻāina ka wāwae. Ma nā ʻano like ʻole, he ʻike kamaʻāina ko ka inoa ʻāina a me kona pilina iā kākou. ʻO ka inoa kahi e hui ai ka ʻike pāpālua, ka ʻike noʻonoʻo, a me ka ʻike pōʻaiapuni e ʻike maopopo ai ke kamaʻāina i kona ao, me ka hoʻokaʻina i nā hana o kona nohona, a me ka hoʻokumu ʻana i ka waiwai a me ka pono ma kēia pae mokupuni.

“Kai pakī o Maunalua.”

Ma waho aku o ke kuhi ʻana i ka ʻāina, he aʻo ka inoa ʻāina Hawaiʻi ma nā ʻano ʻokoʻa hoʻi, e like me ke kuhi ʻana i kahi o ka waiwai e waiho ai. E laʻa hoʻi me nā inoa wahi nona ʻo “wai”, he wai nō ko laila. Ua kuhi ʻia nō ka wai ma ka moku ʻo Waiʻanae ma Oʻahu nei, pēlā me ka ʻanae e holo aku ana me ka pinepine, ua komo aku nō i loko o ka inoa o ia wahi.

ʻO kekahi mau ʻano inoa ʻāina naʻe, pili i ka hoʻomana. ʻO Mōkapu ma Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu nei, he hoʻopōkole ʻana iā “moku kapu”. He inoa ia e kuhi ana i nā ʻāina kapu i lilo iā Kamehameha I. He mau kumu ʻike hou aʻe hoʻi e haʻi mai ana ʻo Mōkapu kahi i hana mua loa ʻia ai ka poʻe nāna ʻo Hawaiʻi i hoʻokawowo. ʻO nā ʻano inoa ʻāina ʻē aʻe, he hoʻomanaʻo nō lākou i nā hana nui o ka wā i hala, me he kākau moʻolelo lā, e laʻa me Kohelepelepe nona ka moʻolelo o Kamapuaʻa, ke kupua, ka mea nāna i uhaiāholo iā Pele mai ʻō a ʻō o kēia paeʻāina. Ma hope iho, hoʻolele aʻela ʻo Kapo i kona maʻi iā luna o Koko e ʻumeʻume ai iā Kamapuaʻa, i ala hoʻomaha a hoʻopakele hoʻi no Pele. Wahi a ke kaʻao, ua waiho ʻia nō i wahi poho ma kaʻe o ka lua ʻo Koko, a ʻike mau ʻia ke nānā aku mai Awāwamalu aʻe.

Aia ma loko lilo o ia mau mea a pau nā inoa ʻāina.

Ma helu wale ʻana mai i kēia mau inoa ʻāina, ʻike ʻia paha he pilikia: ʻO nā inoa ʻāina a pau i kāhea ʻia mai nei, he mau inoa ʻōlelo haole e kū nō ma ko lākou wahi, i poʻi nō ma luna o nā inoa Hawaiʻi, a i ʻole ia, ua hoʻohepa ʻia maila ke ʻano e puana ʻia ai ka inoa kumu, a ua hele nō a laha loa me hea mea lā ua ʻanoʻē a malihini mai nei ka mea kumu. Ma ka puana maʻa mau iā Waiʻanae, he hāʻule ka ʻokina, a loli aʻe ka manaʻo, i loko nō o ka manaʻo ʻole e hana pēlā. Ma hope o ke Kaua Puni Honua II, ua kapa hou ʻia ʻo Mōkapu ma ka inoa ʻo North Beach, a ma ia hope mai, ʻo Marine Corps Base, a i ʻole ʻo MCBH. Ua hoʻolōkahi ʻia aʻela ʻo Kohelepelepe a me Koko, ka lua ona e waiho ala i luna, ma ka inoa laha i kēia mau lā, ʻo “Koko Head”. He mau laʻana wale nō kēia ma waena o nā loli he mau haneli i pau i ka hoʻololi ʻia, a me ia wikiwiki, ke wānana nei nō i ka nui hou aku e loli auaneʻi.

Flux Memory The Gravity of Inoa ʻĀina
ʻO ka papahana kūkulu kūlanakauhale, he hana ia e kapa ʻia ai ka inoa hou, e like me Pearl City, St. Louis Heights, a me Chinatown, a ua laulaha aʻela nō ia mau inoa i loko o nā makahiki i hala.

He pōpilikia ka nalo o ka inoa Hawaiʻi me ke kapa ʻia mai o nā inoa hou a malihini hoʻi, i loko nō o ka like a like paha o nā loina e loaʻa ai ia mau inoa me nā loina Hawaiʻi. He hoʻomanaʻo nō ka inoa ʻo Pearl Harbor, ʻo ka mea naʻe e hoʻomanaʻo ʻia mai, ʻo ka makemake o ʻAmelika i ka naʻi, e noho, a e hoʻomāhuahua i kona pūʻali koa, e like me ia inoa ʻo MCBH. He kuhi honua ka inoa ʻo Sandy Beach, ʻaʻole naʻe ia he inoa e kau ai ka hāliʻa no ke kulāiwi Hawaiʻi e like me ka hana a ka inoa ʻo Awāwamalu, e kuhi ana i ke awāwa malumalu o uka iho kahi i kanu a mahi nui ʻia ai ka ʻuala. Ua mae ihola ka inoa ʻo Kohelepelepe ma hope o ke kūkulu ʻia ʻana o Maunalua a hoʻokahuli ʻia mai ʻo Hawaiʻi Kai e waiho nei ma hope o ka lilo ʻana o Hawaiʻi he mokuʻāina i ka makahiki 1959, a ua kaumaha pālua ka inoa kumu ma lalo o Koko Head a me kona alapiʻi ʻo “Stairs of Doom” i ka hele ʻana a kaulana ia wahi i ka hele ʻia e ka nui poʻe kamaʻāina a malihini hoʻi.

Ke ʻike nei kākou i ke kākau maoli hou ʻia o kēia ʻāina ʻo Hawaiʻi ma lalo o nā inoa hou a malihini, no lākou nō ka nui o ka makemake. I ka wā e loli ai nā inoa ʻāina, pēlā e loli ai ko lākou mau wahi, ko lākou mau manaʻo, a me ko lākou mau pono. He nui nō nā kumu e loli ai ka inoa, ʻaʻole naʻe he poholalo ʻole i nā wā a pau, e like me ka naʻi ʻana i kauwahi ʻāina a wahi paha. No kekahi poʻe, he maʻalahi ka puana i ka haole ma mua o ka Hawaiʻi. Maliʻa paha, ʻoi aku paha ke kūpono o ka inoa hou, e kohu pono ai ke ʻano o ia wahi e waiho nei i kēia wā. ʻO ka mea nui, e manaʻo pono kākou i kēia kākau hou ʻia ʻana, he hoʻokaʻawale mai nō ia iā kākou a me nā inoa Hawaiʻi, a i hua nō hoʻi o ia hana, he hoʻokau pākaha mai hoʻi i nā loina hou, nā pono ʻē, a me nā moʻolelo malihini.

Flux Memory The Gravity of Inoa ʻĀina
He manaʻolana nō naʻe koʻu, aia ma nā lanakila ʻuʻuku, ma ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana hoʻi i nā inoa kuluma, nā inoa kuʻuna, nā inoa kumu, me ko kākou kāhea, hāpai, a hoʻōho hou ʻana iā lākou.

“Ola ka inoa.”

Ma waho o ka hoʻopūʻalikoa me ka hoʻomakauliʻi, ʻo ia nā makemake e kāpala i mau inoa hou ma luna o ka ʻāina, mai loko mai hoʻi o kekahi mau ʻoihana aʻe i puka mai ai kekahi mau inoa malihini, nāna e hehikū nei ma luna o nā inoa kamaʻāina. ʻO ka papahana kūkulu kūlanakauhale, he hana ia e kapa ʻia ai ka inoa hou, e like me Pearl City, St. Louis Heights, a me Chinatown, a ua laulaha aʻela nō ia mau inoa i loko o nā makahiki i hala. ʻOiai hoʻi, he pili pono mai nō ia mau inoa i ka nohona kamaʻāina o kēia wā, he uhi lākou ma luna o nā inoa Hawaiʻi kuʻuna e heahea ʻia ana ma mua o ka puka ʻana o ka inoa hou.

ʻO ka maʻa mau, he mea ʻike wale ka inoa malihini—he inoa no waho mai, he Hawaiʻi ʻole—no ka mea, ʻeā, ʻaʻole nō ia he mea Hawaiʻi. Eia naʻe, he hoʻopunipuni paha ka ʻike (a me ka lohe). Pehea hoʻi nā inoa ʻo Hawaii Kai a me Lanikai. Me he mea lā, he mau inoa Hawaiʻi ke lohe aku, ke puana aku, kohu pono nō i ka pela ʻana o ka ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi. Ma nā moʻolelo naʻe o ia mau inoa e puka mai ai ke kūʻēʻē ʻana ma waena o ka hana pono a me ka noho ʻāina ʻana.

I ka makahiki 1924 a ma hope iki mai paha, ua hoʻomaka ka mae ʻana o ka inoa ʻo Kaʻōhao ma lalo o nā hana kūkulu i ka wahi e waiho mau nei i kēia wā, ʻo Lanikai. I nā makahiki 1960, ma nā kānāwai hou o ka mokuʻāina i hiki ai iā Henry Kaiser ke hoʻomāhuahua aʻe i kona kūlanakauhale ma Maunalua a hoʻololi mai, ʻo Hawaii Kai maila nō ia. I hōʻailona no kāna mau hana, ua komo ka hapalua mua o kona inoa hope (ʻo Kaiser) i loko o ka hapalua hope o kona ʻāina i “hana” ai (ʻo Kai). He kuanaʻike Hawaiʻi ko nā inoa kuʻuna: ʻo Kaʻōhao, no ka ʻōhao maoli ʻia ʻana o nā wāhine he ʻelua ma ka ʻāʻī i ko lāua eo ʻana iā haʻi i ke kōnane; he inoa ko Maunalua, ʻo Keahupuaomaunalua (ʻo Koko Marina i kēia wā), e pili ana i ka loko iʻa i kīpaepae ʻia, he inoa ia e kuhi ana i ke kumuwaiwai o ia ʻāina i ka wā kahiko. He mea palaweka wale nā inoa hou, ʻaʻole paha manaʻo kūʻiʻo, a e hoʻohuikau mai ana i ka moʻolelo maoli o ia mau wahi, me ka kūʻē mai hoʻi i kekahi mau lula pilina ʻōlelo. Inā unuhi ʻia hoʻi ʻo Lanikai, e maopopo hewa auaneʻi ʻo “heavenly sea”, no ke kaʻina pono ʻole o nā huaʻōlelo ʻelua, ʻo lani a ʻo kai. ʻO ia hukihuki ma waena o ka loina kahiko a me ka loina hou, he hōʻailona ʻuʻuku ia no ia ʻano hukihuki ma ka laulā a me ke ākea a kākou e ʻike ai ma Hawaiʻi nei.

Flux Memory The Gravity of Inoa ʻĀina
He pōpilikia ka nalo o ka inoa Hawaiʻi me ke kapa ʻia mai o nā inoa hou a malihini hoʻi, i loko nō o ka like a like paha o nā loina e loaʻa ai ia mau inoa me nā loina Hawaiʻi.

I ka wā e loli ai nā inoa ʻāina, pēlā e loli ai ko lākou mau wahi, ko lākou mau manaʻo, a me ko lākou mau pono.

ʻO ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka inoa ʻāina, ʻo ka uhi ʻana iā ia ma lalo o ke kapa ʻeleʻele. He mau ukali nā inoa hou e lawe a e hoʻokipa mai ana i ke au hou, a he au malihini nō ia ma ka hoʻokau ʻānunu ʻana i mau moʻolelo no waho mai e pili ana i ia mau wahi a me ko lākou noho ʻia ʻana. ʻO ke kapa me ke kāpala hoʻi i inoa hou, ua like me ka hana maoli me ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka hiʻohiʻona o ka ʻāina. ʻAʻole ia he mea hoʻopūʻiwa, he ʻokoʻa maoli ka noho ʻia ʻana o ia mau wahi hou, me he mea lā, ua wānana nā inoa hou i ke ʻano e hana ʻia ai ko lākou mau wahi e kapa nei. 

He manaʻolana nō naʻe koʻu, aia ma nā lanakila ʻuʻuku, ma ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana hoʻi i nā inoa kuluma, nā inoa kuʻuna, nā inoa kumu, me ko kākou kāhea, hāpai, a hoʻōho hou ʻana iā lākou. E like me ka hoʻopau ʻia o ka inoa o Lanikai School i ka makahiki 2017, me ke kapa hou ʻana ma ka inoa ʻo Ke Kula o Kaʻōhao, i mea e hea ai i ka inoa o kona ʻāina e waiho nei ma mua o ke kūkulu ʻia ʻana i ka makahiki 1924. Eia hoʻi, me he mea lā, he hoʻoikaika ma ka pela pololei ʻana i nā inoa Hawaiʻi me ka ʻokina me ke kahakō. A puni ʻo Oʻahu, ʻike ʻia nā hōʻailona e kuhi ana i nā palena moku a ahupuaʻa hoʻi, a he makepono loa ia papahana, ua hana like ʻia nō e ko nā mokupuni ʻē aʻe.

Flux Memory The Gravity of Inoa ʻĀina
Ka pu‘u nō Kohelepelepe, 2020.

Maopopo iā kākou ka mea e makamae a e hiehie ai hoʻi ʻo Hawaiʻi. Maopopo hoʻi ke kumu o ia ʻōlelo kaulana “he pōmaikaʻi ka noho ʻana i Hawaiʻi nei”. Maopopo iā kākou nā pono e waiwai ai ʻo Hawaiʻi iā kākou—ʻo ko kākou pilina i ko kākou home me kona moʻolelo, i ko kākou hoʻoilina e lōkahi ai, i ko kākou haʻaheo i ka ʻāina kulāiwi. Aia ma loko lilo o ia mau mea a pau nā inoa ʻāina. Me kēlā hoʻi, aia iā kākou ka ʻike ʻana, ke kāhea ʻana, a me ka hoʻoili ʻana iā lākou a mau loa aku.